Boils may resolve with simple self-care measures, but the infected fluid (pus) needs to drain in order for them to heal completely. Many boils drain of their own accord, or they can be lanced by a health care professional. Antibiotics may also be prescribed. Untreated boils can enlarge or grow together to form a giant multi-headed boil (called a carbuncle). Rarely, the infection in the skin can get into the bloodstream, leading to serious illness.
People that are particularly prone to developing boils include:
- Athletes participating in contact sports or using shared equipment
- Individuals with a weakened immune system, such as persons with HIV, diabetics, and those taking certain medications, such as the types of medications used to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ or to treat cancer (chemotherapy)
- Individuals with another skin condition that may lead to scratching or otherwise injuring the skin (eczema, scabies)
- Staph carriers
- People who are obese
- Individuals with poor nutrition
- People living in close quarters with others (such as in military barracks, prisons, homeless shelters)
Boils can be very contagious. Do not allow the child to share clothing, towels, bedding, or sporting equipment with others while he or she has a boil. Wash your child's hands frequently with antibacterial hand soap to avoid spreading the infection to others.
Have the child use an antibacterial soap on boil-prone areas when showering, and dry the skin thoroughly after bathing. The child should avoid tight-fitting clothing and activities that cause a great deal of sweating.
Do not pop the boil yourself or allow the child to pop the boil with a pin or needle. Doing so may make the infection worse.
- There are multiple boils or if the boil(s) increase in size or number.
- The child has a fever or chills, severe pain, or otherwise feels unwell.
- The boil fails to drain.
- The area of redness surrounding the boil begins spreading.
- The child has diabetes, a heart murmur, a problem with his/her immune system, or is taking immune-suppressing medications when the boil develops.
- The child has had repeated outbreaks of boils.
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a strain of "staph" bacteria resistant to antibiotics in the penicillin family, which have been the cornerstone of antibiotic therapy for staph and skin infections for decades. CA-MRSA previously infected only small segments of the population, such as health care workers and persons using injection drugs. However, CA-MRSA is now a common cause of skin infections in the general population. While CA-MRSA bacteria are resistant to penicillin and penicillin-related antibiotics, most staph infections with CA-MRSA can be easily treated by health care practitioners using local skin care and commonly available non-penicillin-family antibiotics. Rarely, CA-MRSA can cause serious skin and soft tissue (deeper) infections. Staph infections typically start as small red bumps or pus-filled bumps, which can rapidly turn into deep, painful sores. If you see a red bump or pus-filled bump on your child's skin that is worsening or showing any signs of infection (ie, the area becomes increasingly painful, red, or swollen), see the child's doctor right away. Many people believe incorrectly that these bumps are the result of a spider bite when they arrive at the doctor's office. Your doctor may need to test (culture) infected skin for MRSA before starting antibiotics. If your child has a skin problem that resembles a CA-MRSA infection or a culture that is positive for MRSA, the doctor may need to provide local skin care and prescribe oral antibiotics. To prevent spread of infection to others, infected wounds, hands, and other exposed body areas should be kept clean and wounds should be covered during therapy.
The child's physician may choose to collect a swab of the pus for laboratory analysis and swabs from other areas of the body (nose, armpits, and/or anus and genital area) to determine if he or she is a carrier of staph. If the child is a carrier, the doctor may prescribe a topical medication applied to the inside of the nose and/or oral antibiotics for several days. These measures can help to prevent a recurrence of the boil(s) and to decrease the possibility that the child may unknowingly spread the germ to others. If your child's doctor prescribes antibiotics, be sure the child takes the full course of treatment.