Primary syphilis is a disease caused by a corkscrew-shaped bacterium (a spirochete) called Treponema pallidum. It causes disease when it penetrates broken skin of the genitals or the mucous membranes of the mouth or anus. Primary syphilis is usually passed on to others through sexual contact, but other ways are possible (for example, from an infected mother to her newborn baby). There are 3 stages of infection, and it is important to recognize infection in the first (primary) stage, as this stage will heal without therapy. If the infection is not treated early, it will then continue and often goes on to damage the nervous system and the heart, leading to early death.Syphilis can be completely cured if treated early. Healed infection leaves no immunity, so you can get infected again.
Genital warts (condyloma acuminata) are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), which has over 100 different strains. Subtypes number 6 and 11 cause 90% of genital warts and are considered low risk because they very rarely will cause genital or anal cancer. On the other hand, subtypes 16 and 18, for example, are considered high risk because, although they rarely cause genital warts, they can lead to cervical or anal precancer and cancer. HPV is spread by skin-to-skin contact during sexual activity; there does not need to be vaginal or anal intercourse to spread the infection. Most people who become infected with HPV will not have symptoms and will clear the infection on their own. For people who do develop genital warts, there are many options for treatment, all of which are meant to remove the visible warts. There is no cure for genital warts. Gardasil® is a vaccine that protects against the 4 strains of HPV that cause 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. In the US, Gardasil is approved for girls/women and boys/men ages 9–26. In 2011, Health Canada approved the vaccine for women up to the age of 45.
Cluster headache is considered a primary headache syndrome, one of a group of headaches with distinctly different features compared to other common headache syndromes (eg, tension headache and migraine). The hallmarks of cluster headaches are their occurrence in clusters with quiet periods between clusters and their severity.Immediately seek medical attention if you or someone you are caring for experiences any of the following:Stiff neck and a high fever associated with headache Sudden onset of a severe headache Loss of motor function, the ability to think clearly, or convulsions associated with headache Head injury Increased intensity and/or frequency of headaches
Jock itch (tinea cruris) is a surface (superficial) fungal infection of the skin on either side of the body where the thigh joins the abdomen, known as the groin. It is often spread to the groin from tinea infection on the feet (tinea pedis or athlete's feet).
Varicose veins (varicosities) are twisted, enlarged veins at the skin surface. The word comes from the Latin word varix, which means "twisted."Varicose veins occur due to poor functioning (malfunction) of valves in the deeper leg veins (venous insufficiency), making blood back up (pool) in the legs, with the resulting pressure causing surface veins to enlarge.
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by infection with the herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are 2 major strains of this virus: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simple virus type 2 (HSV-2). In general, genital herpes is caused by HSV-2, and "fever blisters," or herpes on the face or lips, is caused by HSV-1.HSV-2 can cause small, open, tender sores to develop on the genitals or in the buttocks. Though the virus is very contagious to others, only 20% of people who are infected will develop sores. The sores are usually described as an "outbreak," with the first outbreak occurring within weeks of exposure to the virus and subsequent outbreaks over a person's lifetime usually occurring less and less frequently. The sores themselves often crop up in the same place on the body. The sores are very contagious and are spread by skin-to-skin contact. Most people (up to 80%) never have an outbreak of sores, but they are still contagious and may spread the disease to others.There is no cure for genital HSV. The only way to protect yourself is to know your sexual partners and to wear condoms. However, many people are unaware that they are infected with HSV. A doctor can check for HSV infection by doing a test on an open sore, or if there is no sore, by ordering a test on the blood. This is not a standard STD test, so make sure to ask your doctor if you have concerns. A pregnant woman with genital HSV can transmit the disease to her baby during delivery, which can be fatal for the baby. Make sure to discuss your sexual history with your doctor if you are pregnant. Your doctor can also help provide treatments to lessen the severity of outbreaks and may help you identify triggers (such as stress or illness) that may bring on outbreaks.
Migraine is a collection of symptoms that usually includes headache as the prominent complaint. Sometimes called "sick headache," "weekend headache," and other names, it is very common and most people know someone who has suffered from migraines or has migraines themselves. The headache is usually severe, on one side of the head, and, in about 1 out of 5 people, it is accompanied by other symptoms. Migraine headaches are typically divided into those with or without a warning (aura).Interestingly, migraine symptoms can occur without a headache. In many instances, it affects many members of the same family. In fact, the inheritance of migraine is an area of exciting research as its cause.Migraine is what is called a diagnosis of exclusion. In other words, everything else has to be ruled out prior to the diagnosis of migraine.Immediately seek medical attention if you or someone you are caring for experiences any of the following:Stiff neck and a high fever associated with headache Sudden onset of a severe headache Loss of motor function, the ability to think clearly, or convulsions associated with headache Head injury Increased intensity and/or frequency of headaches
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is an uncommon sexually transmitted disease caused by certain types of the bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. It is spread through having unprotected vaginal, oral, or anal sex. Lymphogranuloma venereum causes painful and swollen lymph nodes, which can then break down into large ulcers. The disease goes through 3 distinct stages as it develops. The first 2 stages of lymphogranuloma venereum may be minor, and you might not even be aware of any symptoms until you reach stage 3, called the genitoanorectal syndrome.
Question: Is it bad to treat itchy skin with hydrocortisone, because it merely treats the itch (if even that) and not the underlying cause?
Rosacea is a chronic, common problem for many adults and appears in many different forms and levels of severity. All forms of rosacea have at least one of three primary symptoms. These include 1) pimples similar to acne, 2) redness and/or prominent blood vessels, and 3) rhinophyma (an enlarged, bulbous, ruddy nose). A person with rosacea may have just one symptom, a combination of two symptoms, or all three. In my experience, rosacea affects men and women equally, although rhinophyma tends to be more common in men.
Breast cancer is a disease that affects women of all ages, incomes, and ethnicities. Men can also get breast cancer, but it is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancers. In 2008, it is estimated that 182,460 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 67,770 new cases of noninvasive breast cancer are expected to occur among women in the United States. In addition, an estimated 40,480 women with this disease will die. An estimated 1,990 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer, and 450 men will die of the disease.
A balanced diet is crucial for overall health. But do certain foods also have specific benefits for managing psoriasis? Many people with the disease believe so. However, research has yielded mixed results. Here’s what’s known about diet and psoriasis—and what’s not.
Earlier this year I wrote posts that addressed the various options available for treating hyperpigmentation (chemical peels, microdermabrasion, and over-the-counter products). My last post, Laser Therapy 101: Cleaning Up Summer Fun, described laser therapy as an option for treating skin with dark spots and scars made worse by sun damage. But what about dark spots caused by hair growth and our attempts to remove unwanted hair? My next big topic for Laser Therapy 101 is using lasers to remove unwanted or excess hair as well as treat hyperpigmentation and scarring from ingrown hairs caused by shaving (pseudofolliculitis barbae).
The end of summer is perfect timing for the last topic in my series on Summer Skin Fitness. I started the summer with colorblind laser therapies and then described how you can manage pesky conditions that are made worse by the summer sun. Now summer is nearly over, which makes it the perfect time for treating visible leg veins. In this post I explain 3 different types of visible and bothersome leg veins, treatments that are available, and why this is a good time of year to address them.
Acne rosacea is a chronic disorder that primarily affects facial skin. It typically appears after age 30, first as red blotches on the cheeks, nose, chin, or forehead. Over time, the affected areas become more severe and more persistent, and blood vessels may appear. Untreated, acne rosacea can develop into bumps and pimples. Many sufferers also experience irritated eyes that appear watery or bloodshot.
This morning I was doing my usual morning scan of CNN for interesting stories and found that they published a Q&A for "What can I eat to keep my skin looking younger?" Below you will find an article written by Dr. Andrea Pennington that was originally posted on Skinsight on October 19, 2009 (link to original post and some great related topics are below). - Jeremy, VisualDx Staff Is Your Diet Aging You? I can tell what my 3-year-old daughter has been snacking on because it’s visible all over her precious face. Would you be surprised to learn that the telltale signs of what you have been eating – or avoiding – are equally noticeable just by looking at your face? It’s true. Dermatologists explain that our skin is a window into our overall health and can show clues of what’s going on under the surface.