Eczema, formally known as atopic dermatitis, is a common disorder in infants and is associated with dry and itchy patches of skin. Young children will often scratch at the dry skin, causing bleeding in the affected area. Eczema can occur on any part of the body and is most common on skin that is stretched often (eg, the back of elbows and front of knees).Eczema is not contagious and it is not an infection, but prolonged scratching can allow bacteria to get through the skin and cause an infection. Some common triggers that cause eczema include:Heat and humidity Abrasive clothing Tobacco smoke and chemicals Some soaps and detergents
Dyshidrotic eczema, also known as dyshidrotic dermatitis, is an itchy rash that occurs on the hands and feet. Dyshidrotic eczema looks like blisters on the skin. Sometimes the blisters are very small, like pinpoints, and sometimes they are larger, covering almost the whole palm or foot. The fluid inside the blister can be clear or white to yellow. It is not known what causes this condition, but it is more common in people with eczema; even in people without sensitive skin, it seems to be triggered by the same things that trigger eczema: cold, dry air or contact with irritants that bother the skin. In other people, a warm, moist climate may be the trigger. Do not pop the blisters of dyshidrotic eczema because of the risk of infection. A doctor may prescribe a cream to help the rash heal.
Nummular dermatitis is a particular form of eczema (atopic dermatitis) characterized by coin-shaped, raised areas on the skin that are scaly.The cause of nummular dermatitis is not known, but it is associated with triggers such as frequent bathing, irritating and drying soaps, and exposure to irritating fabrics such as wool. Those with nummular dermatitis often have some of the signs and symptoms typically associated with eczema. Nummular dermatitis is itchy (pruritic), but it is less itchy than other common diagnoses with scaly plaques, such as psoriasis. Winter is usually the time of onset and severity. Nummular dermatitis can be chronic, and symptoms can go away and recur indefinitely.
Chickenpox (varicella) is an infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus that goes away on its own. Infection spreads among humans through fluids from the airways, such as from coughing and sneezing, with non-infected household members at high risk of becoming infected as well. The development (incubation) period is 14–16 days, and the first sign of disease is a rash. People are considered contagious for 2–5 days before the onset of skin lesions and for 6 days after the last series of rashes have appeared.The most common complication is infection of lesions with bacteria. Rare complications include lung infection (pneumonia) or brain infection (encephalitis). Children who have weak immune systems, eczema, or recent sunburns have more severe symptoms. Because the virus remains resting (latent) in the parts of nerves that are near the spinal cord (nerve roots) for life, about 1 in 10 adults will get shingles (zoster) when the virus reappears, usually under conditions of stress to the body.After having chickenpox, a person is usually immune for life, although reinfection is possible.
Pityriasis alba is a common skin rash that occurs mainly in school-aged children and less commonly in infants. The rash of pityriasis alba appears as round, light-colored, slightly raised patches that have a thin scale and may be itchy. The lesions are common on the face (cheeks), neck, and upper arms and legs, and may be one half inch to several inches in diameter. The cause of pityriasis alba is not clear, but it appears to be worse with dryness, heat, and other stress to the skin. It does not appear to be contagious. The lesions of pityriasis alba may disappear only to reappear until approximately 1 or more years after the rash began (if left untreated). Once the rash is entirely resolved, normal pigmentation will reappear several months later.
Nipple dermatitis describes either itchiness or soreness of either one or both nipples. There are several possible causes of this problem including: Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Thrush (oral yeast infection) An allergic reaction (contact dermatitis) Local irritationA rare form of breast cancer, Paget's disease, may mimic nipple dermatitis.
Folliculitis is a skin condition caused by an inflammation of one or more hair follicles in a limited area. It typically occurs in areas of irritation, such as sites of shaving, skin friction, or rubbing from clothes. In most cases of folliculitis, the inflamed follicles are infected with bacteria, especially with Staphylococcus organisms, that normally live on the skin.The most common factors that contribute to the development of folliculitis include:Irritation from shaving Friction from tight clothing A pre-existing skin condition, such as eczema, acne, or another dermatitis (inflammation of the skin) Injuries to the skin, such as abrasions Extended contact from plastic bandages or adhesive tape
Sweaty sock syndrome (juvenile plantar dermatosis) is a condition where the skin becomes scaly and red on the soles of the feet of children and young teenagers.The cause of sweaty sock syndrome is unknown, though alternating moist and dry conditions may lead to the condition. It tends to be a long-lasting (chronic) condition, lasting, on average, about 3 years. Sweaty sock syndrome usually goes away when a child reaches puberty.
Q: I’ve heard that baths with diluted bleach can successfully treat kids with eczema. Is this true? A: Common household bleach (sodium hypochlorite) is best known as the product that “makes whites whiter,” but diluted bleach has also been used as a dental antiseptic and, in certain forms, as a wound disinfectant. Given the common perception of bleach as an irritant, one would think that bathing in it would be harmful, but clinical trials have actually proven this treatment to be very effective.
As winter approaches, the skin irritations and rashes associated with eczema tend to start showing up with increased frequency. As a pediatric dermatologist I see this trend in my patients every year. Eczema in children first shows up in infancy and gets better as kids get older. But in the meantime, many sufferers of childhood eczema find this time of year uncomfortable. In this post I explain some of the common triggers of eczema-related rashes and offer some suggestions for parents to deal with these symptoms.
There are many causes of itchy skin, some resulting from unfortunate forays into poison ivy patches, assaults from pesky mosquitoes, or a chronic skin disease such as eczema (atopic dermatitis). Despite various causes, all can produce a similar sensation – an itch. Itch is hard to define, yet most would agree it is “that which produces the desire to scratch.”
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common type of eczema, often called “the itch that rashes.” The itch can be overwhelmingly intense, especially in children, who are its primary sufferers. The disease usually begins in childhood – 90% of initial cases of the condition develop before age of 5 years, with 65% developing the condition during their first year.
Q: How long do skin rashes typically last? Rashes can last any amount of time, from minutes to hours, days to weeks, or even months to years, depending on the cause. The rash from hives, for example, may last only a number of minutes or hours. One individual hive lesion lasts for less than a day, but the general rash may last for weeks. Rashes such as psoriasis or eczema can last for months to years unless treated. Dr. Lowell Goldsmith and Dr. Jeff Bernhard contributed their expertise on behalf of VisualDx for the above information.
During winter, skin is subjected to an increased amount of moisture loss. As a result, I hear the term dry skin used a lot. There really are many terms in dermatology related to dry skin. In fact, the term dry skin is a layman’s phrase. I’m going to share some of the more colorful and interesting terms physicians use to describe this condition. Often, the medical term itself is a clue to the symptoms it is referring to. I selected and interpreted a few terms that I find particularly interesting and relevant to this time of year.
What bit me? Bedbugs. Scabies. Fleas. Spiders. Ticks. Lice… All can cause rashes, itching, and a lot of worry. The recent surge in bedbugs in eastern cities has everyone talking about how to find and kill bed bugs. But if you have a new rash or itchy red bumps, how do you know if bed bugs are the cause? Maybe your skin problem is not even related to insects or bugs and is caused by something different altogether. Many skin disorders like eczema (atopic dermatitis) and/or infections of your pores (known as folliculitis) can have an itchy rash, and these conditions have nothing to do with biting bugs, although people often wrongly assume that these common skin conditions are “bug” related.
Q: I just developed impetigo. How does one get it as an adult?Impetigo is a superficial skin infection that is common in young children; however, individuals of any age can be affected. Impetigo is usually caused by bacteria from the staphylococcal (commonly known as staph) or streptococcal (commonly known as strep) species. Generally, those who are affected are carriers of these bacteria, meaning that their nostrils are colonized by the bacteria.